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Category:Shia Answers

Taqiyya in Qur'an and Tradition

The second matter that “cavillers” and “our fanatic oppositions” animadvert on followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) is Taqiyya. They say that why you do Taqiyya? Isn’t it a kind of concision?!
They change this matter to a big problem that as if Taqiyya is Haraam or a great sin or even worse than that.
They are unknown of this matter that Qur'an has allowed Taqiyya explicitly in several verses with special conditions, and cabbalas in their own references confirms the matter, and also above all Taqiyya (under its conditions) is the exact command of the sanity and they experienced and did this in their own lives too.
For explaining this matter, noticing to some points is necessary:
 
 
 
1- What is Taqiyya?
Taqiyya is the act of hiding one’s religious belief in front of fanatic and obstinate opposites when there may be possibility of a danger to that person.
For example when an Unitarian Muslim trapped among obstinate infidels, and if he express his belief maybe those infidels kill him, hurt him hard, wring his money or even aggress his family, then he hides his belief to save himself and his belongings.
Or if a Shi’aa caught in the middle of desert by an extremist Wahhabi who thinks killing a Shi’aa is allowed, then he hides his belief for saving his life, his assets and his family.
Any wise person confirms that this is a wise and completely logical act, because nobody should give over his/her life due to fanaticism of fanatics.
 
 
2- Difference between Taqiyya and Concision (Nifaq)
Concision is definitely against Taqiyya. A hypocritical is a person who does not believe in Islam or has doubts about it, but express believing of Islam among Muslims.
This Taqiyya which we are talking about is believing Islam deeply, but don’t following some extremist Wahhabi who know every Muslim as infidel except themselves and threaten them. Whenever believers hide their belief to save their life, their assets or their family and honor from this fanatic group, this is Taqiyya and vise versa is concision.
 
 
 
 
3- Taqiyya in Scale of Sanity
Actually Taqiyya is a defensive shield and due to this in our cabbalas has been introduced as “shield of a believer”.
Sanity never let the human to express his/her belief in front of dangerous and illogical people and endanger his/her life, assets or honor, because wasting energies, powers and facilities is not a wise act.
Taqiyya is similar to the method that all soldiers use in the battlefield. They hide among foliage, in tunnels and behind bulwarks, choose their clothing in color of trees for saving their live and not wasting their blood.
All wise people in the world use method of Taqiyya against their obstinate enemies for saving their lives and never admonish a person to use this method. You cannot find any human in the world who does not accept Taqiyya under its conditions.
 
 
 
4- Taqiyya in Qur’an
Holy Qur'an allowed Taqiyya in several verses against infidels and opposites. For example:
a) In the story of believer of Pharaoh’s clan we read:
“A believer man who was hiding his belief (of Moses religion) said: Do you want to kill a man who says my god is Allah, whereas he has miracle and clear proofs?”1
And he continued: Leave him alone, if he lies the affects of his lie will capture him, and if he tells the through maybe some of those divine punishments which he warns about will capture you.”
In this way believer of Pharaoh’s clan whilst doing Taqiyya and “hiding his belief”, gives necessary advices to those fanatic group which decided to kill the prophet of god, Moses.
b) We read in another explicit command of Qur'an: “Believers should not take infidels as friends; anyone who does this is alien to Allah, unless you want to use Taqiyya among them.”1
This verse has completely prohibited friendship with enemies of Allah, unless in occasions that leaving friendship causes hurting a Muslim and using Taqiyya as a defensive shield in continuing in friendship with them.
c) All interpreters of Qur'an have cited the story of Ammar son of Yasser and his parents. All of them captured by Arab pagans and forced to deny the prophet of Islam (a.s.). Ammar parents refused and died as martyrs, but Ammar used Taqiyya and agreed them and after that go to holy Prophet (a.s.) crying.
At this time this verse descended: “People who deny after they believe ... will punish hard, unless those who were under pressure ...”2
Holy Prophet (a.s.) said that Ammar parents are of martyrs and clean his tears and told him: You are not in charge of that; if they force you again you repeat those words!
Agreement of all Muslim interpreters on descending this verse about Ammar and his parents and the words of Prophet (a.s.) after that, shows that the matter of Taqiyya is acceptable for everyone. This is wonderful that with these inarguable evidences from Qur'an and words of Sonni interpreters, they continue on animadverting on Shi’aa for accepting Taqiyya.
Yes, neither Ammar nor believer of Pharaoh’s clan were hypocritical, they just used the divine command of Taqiyya.

1- Ghafir Sura, verse 28.
2- Aal -e- Imran Sura, verse 28.
3- Nahl Sura, verse 106.
 
 
 
5- Taqiyya in Islamic cabbalas
Also in Islamic cabbalas Taqiyya has been shown extensively and for example: Musnad (documentary) of Abi Shiba is one of Sonnies famous Musnads. He tells in story of “Liar Musailama” that Musailama captured two companions of Prophet of Allah (s.a.) in his territory. He asked both of them that are they confessing his prophecy from god?! One of them confessed and released but the other Muslim did not confess and they killed him.
When Prophet (s.a.) got informed about them said: The one who killed chose the way of truth and the other one accept the divine chance and there is no sin written for him.1
In Ahadith of Ahl -e- Bait Imams (a.s.) specially Imams who were living in the time of Bani Umayya and Bani Abbas power when companions and followers of Ali (a.s.) were killed anywhere they found, we can see the order of Taqiyya lots of times, because they had to use Taqiyya shield for saving their lives from those cruel killers.

1- Musnad of Abi Shiba, vol. 12, page 358
 
 
 
6- Dose Taqiyya perform just in confronting with infidels?
When some of our oppositions find themselves in front of these explicit versus and cabbalas had no chance unless accepting the fact that Taqiyya is according to Islamic laws, but they say that Taqiyya performs just in confronting with infidels and it can not be done against or in front of Muslims.
But referring to proofs above difference between these two is clear:
1- If the meaning of Taqiyya is saving life, asset, family and honor from fanatic and dangerous people, which it is, what is the difference between unknown and fanatic Muslim and an infidel? If sanity orders to save these matters and do not waste them, then what is the difference between these kinds of people?
We know people who because of extremity of ignorance and false propagandas, they say: killing Shi’aa makes a man closer to Allah. If a pure Shi’aa and follower of Amiralmo’menin Ali (a.s.) and Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) tangled among these people and they ask him/her about his/her belief, shall this Shi'aa say explicitly that I am Shi’aa and give his/her throat to the knife of ignorance and crime?!
Is there any wise man who orders to do this?!
In other words if Bani Umayya and Bani Abbas rulers and other people like them follow the acts of Arab infidels to Ammar and followers of liar Musailama to two companions of Prophet (s.a.) then how can we say that Taqiyya is Haraam although it will cause dying hundreds or thousands of pure followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.), just because that these rulers are apparently Muslim?!
If Ahl -e- Bait Imams (a.s.) did not emphasis Taqiyya so much that they said: “Nine tenth of Islam is Taqiyya”1, maybe number of immolates during the time of Bani Umayya and Bani Abbas reached the hundred thousands or even millions, meaning that they might kill ten times more that their cruel and brutal carnages.
Can we have any doubt in lawfulness of Taqiyya in these conditions?
We never forget that also Ahl -e- Sonnat had hard religious disagreements for many years, like the matter that Qur'an has happened some day or it exists from the day of beginning, and many peopled killed for these issue! (The issue that today is pointless and meaningless according to scholars).
If the people who believed that they are correct tangled among oppositions, shall they explicitly express their belief and cause themselves to die without any advantage?!
 
2- Fakhr Raazi in interpretation of verse “Unless you perform Taqiyya against them (and hide your belief for more important purposes)”2 says: “appearance of verse implies that Taqiyya is allowed in confronting with dominant infidels, in Shafeie sect whenever the relations between Muslims become similar to relations between Muslims and infidels, then Taqiyya is Halaal for saving the life.”
Then he continue the issue on the reason of permit of Taqiyya for saving asset and reasoning the Hadith of Prophet (s.a.) which is “The reverence of Muslim’s asset is like reverence of his blood” and another Hadith “Anyone who died for saving his assets is martyr.”3
We can also read in interpretation of Neishaboori which is in annotation of Tabari interpretation that Imam Shafeie said: “Taqiyya is allowed for saving lives between Muslim as though it is allowed between Muslims and infidels.”4
3- It is interesting that in the time of Bani Abbas some of Sonni Hadith tellers who believed that Qur'an exists from the day of beginning suppressed by rulers of Bani Abbas and they use Taqiyya and confessed that Qur'an has happened some day, so they released.
Famous historian, Ibn Sa’d, in the book “Tabaghat” (stages) and another famous historian, Tabari, in his book point to two letters which had sent from Ma’moon to chief of Police of Baghdad, Ishaq (Isaac) ibn Ibrahim (Abraham).
Ibn Sa’d writes about the first letter that Ma’moon wrote to chief of police to send seven persons of famous Hadith tellers (Mohammad ibn Sa’d Katib Vaghadi, Abu Muslim, Yahya ibn Moein, Zohair ibn Harb, Ismael ibn Dawood, Ismael ibn Abi Mas’ood and Ahmad ibn Doraghi) guarded to him. When they came to Ma’moon, he asked them as a test that what is your belief about Qur'an? All of them answered that Qur'an is created (although the common belief between them was that Qur'an exist from the day of beginning and they believed in that).5
 
 
Yes, they used Taqiyya in fear of Ma’moon hard penalties and confessed that Qur'an is created and released.
We can read in continue of second letter to Chief of Police of Baghdad which is quoted by Tabari that: When letter of Ma’moon reached him, he called some of Hadith tellers whom their number can be counted to 26 and read the letter of Ma’moon, then called them one by one to express their belief. All of them but four confess that Qur'an is created (and released by using Taqiyya).
Those four persons who did not confess were Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Sajjada, Alghavariri and Mohammad ibn Noah. Chief of police commanded to capture them and send them to prison. The next day he called them and repeated his question, Sajjada confessed and released, but the others returned to prison.
In the third day chief of police called them again and Alghavariri denied his previous belief and released, but Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Mohammad ibn Noah insisted in theirs, and chief banished them to city of “Tartoos”6.
6- A city in Shaam by the sea (Mo’jam Al Boldan, vol. 4, page 30).
When some people protest those who used Taqiyya, they point to the act Ammar in confronting with infidels.7
All these show that whenever a person suppressed by some group of people and the only way of release is Taqiyya, he can use it even it was in confronting with infidels or Muslims (Attention!).

1- Bahar Al Anvar, vol. 109, page 254
2- Aal -e- Imran Sura, verse 28.
3- Great interpretation of Fakhr Raazi, vol. 8, page 13.
4- Neishaboori interpretation (in annotation of Tabari interpretation), vol. 3, page 118.
5- Tabaghat by Ibn Sa’d, vol. 7, page 167, printed in Beirut.
7- Tabari history book, vol. 7, page 197.
 
 
 
 
7- Haraam Taqiyya
In some cases Taqiyya is Haraam, and those are when by hiding the religious belief Islam will be in danger or honor of Muslims harms seriously. In these situations Muslims should express their real belief even they face danger or others hurt them.
And those who think that this is some kind of “killing by own hands” which Qur'an explicitly deny that and said “Do not kill yourselves by your own hands”1 are definitely mistaking, because necessity of this is that attending Jihad will be Haraam which no wise man accept this expression. This issue clears from the arise of Imam Hussein (a.s.) against Yazid, which was definitely a religious duty, and Imam do not accepted, even by Taqiyya, to agree with imposter Yazid and Bani Umayya, because he knew that this act can harm the essentials of Islam and honor of Muslims and also his arise will benefit Muslims by waking them up and releasing them from raffs of ignorance claws.

1 - Baqara Sura, verse 195.
 
 
 
8- Adaptive Taqiyya
This is another kind of Taqiyya which is used to save the unity of Muslim in matters that do not harm Islam or sect in communicating with other sects.
For example followers of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) believe that can not prostrate on carpet and coverings and prostration should be only on earth or it’s components like stone, they know Hadith of Prophet (s.a.) as proof which is “Earth chosen for me for prostration and ablution” 1.
Now if they want to pray with other sects in theirs mosques or Masjid Alharaam or Masjid Alnabi, and for keeping unity of Muslims they prostrate on those carpets like others.
This act is allowed and this prayer is correct in our opinion. This kind of Taqiyya is adaptive Taqiyya, because there is no fear of loosing life or assets but there is just the matter of adapting with other sects of Islam.
Now I will finish the issue of Taqiyya by an expression from one of grand scholars:
One of Shi’aa grand scholars attend a meeting with one of masters of Al-Azhar school in Egypt and that master told this Shiite scholar as an admonition that: I heard you perform Taqiyya?!
Shiite scholar answered: May Allah damns the one who forced us to perform Taqiyya!
 

1- Sahih of Bokhari, vol. 1, page 91 and Sunan (traditions) of Beihaghi, vol. 2, page 433. (This Hadith quoted in lots of other books).